An example of rich picture


Rich picture description

In the rich picture is described the previous (problematic) situation of student attendance process. We can see that since the start of the academic period all the students from all the past years goes to the university’s central office (or the secretariat) to do registration and arrange some other operations about the studies. This process creates sometimes big tail of students which waits a lot of time and concurrently creates big distress to the staff. It is remarkable that the problem is exists during all the academic period. All the operational responsibility has the staff and the information system is old an unconscious. Result of this organization is that all the processes are semi – automated. If someone wants information must ask someone from the staff and all the records are in paper form. The administration because there isn’t an integrated system can’t control some cost’s like the cost of paper and haven’t an integrated view of the university. The result of this problem is shared between the students who haven’t the best quality of services, the teachers which lose time to arrange something like timetables. The staff because have a lot of jobs and processes and finally the university administration can’t have good feedback and can’t organize properly the study programme.

This a (very) small part of a case stude with title:“Development and organization of a University Student Attendance System. Requirements Analysis, proposal solution through UML charts and possibly approaches of development”




For thousands years human being expand itself to the earth. The last five decades there is an attempt from some countries to “break” the Earth borders and expand the human being to the space and other planets. First human on the Moon’s surface and the creation and operation of space stations like MIR and International Space Station (ISS) it was very serious steps for the permanent presence of human in space. A second step could the creation of bases (and small colonies for scientific purpose) to other planets which could lead in far future in transformation of big sizes of population and the building of big colonies. The basic projects proposal and plans are referred to the base creation of Mars and Moon.  Although the development of technologies has bring many successes,   the creation of permanent bases stations or small colonies need the development of technologies and innovation which can complete support a mission to extremely strange environments with the maximum autonomy. Some projects and programs such the space program of JAXA and the IIS development which includes and running current and future  technologies and innovations which could give solution like the life support systems, the protection of cosmic radiation and the accommodation for a long time in strange environments. In this time the base of all these projects have main base the IIS systems.

  1. Introduction

Thousands years ago small nomads of Homo sapiens explore the near area for the expectation to find more food and water. For these reasons Homo sapiens was expanded to all Continents and conquer the Earth. Approximately 3000 years ago ancient Greeks made colonies around the Mediterranean not only to find new sources but to control creative the population growth and the commerce development. Effect of this evolution was the development of navy technology and the rumor of the arts. After 1492 a new age of exploration has begun with the building of new colonies in the America and Australia with basic scope to find new sources for economic and wealth grouth.  Fifty two years ago former Soviet Union was set the first satellite around the earth. It was the first times that a human manufacture “broke”   the earth gravity constrains and traveled above the atmosphere- space borders.   This venture was the staring point of the space conquers. In the beginning were two gladiators: Former Soviet Union and USA.  Both sides had many successes, failures and accidents. After the end of the cold war the appeared other three “players” in the space race: Europe, India and last but not least China. China is the third country in the world which has send man in the moon. It is remarkable that all the history of the space race it isn’t only a competitive game. There are many programs and projects where many countries assemble budget and know how. A good example is the International Space Station (I.S.S). The I.S.S is a result of co-operation of many countries with basic “partners” Russia, USA and E.U (European Space Agency). On 14th January 2004 the President of USA George Bush announced new Space Exploration vision for USA’s Civil Space program [1].  The basic goal of that announcement was “to advance US Scientific, Security and Economic interests through a robust Space Exploration program’. This trial was for technologies development to extend human kind to Moon Mars and beyond. In general “Space colonization” refers to the settling and residence of human beings in space for the purpose of exploiting the physical characteristics of space [2]. There many discussions and projects for space colonization. ”Life of Earth” involves artificial satellites – space station and colonies on planets, asteroids etc. In the following lines it will be discussed some very curious points such as the technological advantages of space colonization, the current and future research in the technological field. Secondary and parallel it will be discussed the environmental and technical problems that has been established


Picture 1 :MIR space station,source

  1. Space colonization: Requirements and Constraints

Since today there isn’t any short term project for space colonization for any planet. The only serious “in progress” project is under development is the ISS. Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has a project for the exploration and a base construction on the moon. In JAXA Visio document is compromised that will be develop technologies to achieve these goals. A serious problem that must be resolved is the settlement autonomy in unsafe conditions. Of course has been gained a lot off experience from previous aerospace projects. Some of problems are:

  • The very low surface gravity
  • The lack or unusable atmosphere
  • The cosmic radiation
  • The support in long distance and time travel

These problems create some questions (K.L. Murphy et al. / Advances in Space Research 43 (2009) 1275–1284)

  • Can we develop infrastructures to space for an extended autonomous system?
  • Can we modify scenarios and technologies to make them applicable in autonomous mode in space? How?
  • What is the minimal technology set to make a mission completely based on space resources and autonomous from Earth supply?

The basic thoughts and ideas for first steps for space colonization are to construct bases (and labs) on the Moon and on the Mars. General the bases must have two types of specific characteristics: The first is that must have similarities with a spacecraft and the second is that must simulate the environment of Earth.

2.1 Life support technology

Life support systems in space stations and on the planets surfaces maybe is the most critical issue for the space colonization. Because the strange and strong different environments from Earth none human can leave without the support of the advance technology support systems. The basic requirements of a life support system could be:

  • The closed environment must be habitable with the appropriate conditions (atmosphere, temperature)
  • Provide all Human consumables like food and water
  • Systems which have the specification of the Process and recycle waste

Today the only life support systems that have been operated for long time are MIR’s and ISS’s

2.1.1 Life support systems of MIR

The life support system will be based the MIR and   I.S.S. MIR was in orbit around the earth for fifteen year and it was calculated that would be had full operation for five year. The life support system of MIR was developed based the primarily chemical regeneration techniques like the Electron air-regeneration systems and lithium per chlorate candles. These systems were designed for uninterrupted use with one or two people and had the ability to support more people when there was crew substitution (replacement) or had visitors. Finally the maximum number of people that had to support was three people. The general description of MIR’s systems where that    spare parts for the life support system and electrical system support was located on board.  Resupplying was become by supply vessels (Reiter, 1996). Also critical systems had robust backups and spare parts.  A remarkable fact is that into M IR has become the record for longest time spent by a human in space and prove that human can survive for long time in space  travels (for example Earth-Mars) without the big body debilitation. The record man’s name was Valerie Polyakov.


Picture 2: ISS

2.1.2 General Design and Life support systems of International Space Station

The design of MIR was the base of ISS (Picture 2,3) development structure. ISS systems are controlled by fifty-two computers. The software that have been written includes    more than 400,000 lines and the flight support system software includes 1,7 million lines code. Of course and in this station there a lot of spare parts. It would be serious to be referred some characteristics costs and other numbers of this project. NASA has already estimated that for the support, upgrades and repairs are needed $6 billion dollars (and this station doesn’t travel but is only in orbit around the Earth). At the first five year operation ISS was complete in the half and the mass was 404,000 pounds, and in completed mass will be near 1 million pounds .About the life support system of ISS there are three subsystems about the closed system which involve the atmosphere, the water and the waste.  All these system have a connection and recycle everything element is needed.  The monitoring and the operations controls do an information system.  In the figure 1 we can see some of electrochemical process for produce of some elements. A good example of these processes that the hydrogen produced by water electrolysis is now vented overboard but could be used later in Sabatier carbon dioxide reduction


Figure1: ISS life support system.source:sciencedirect

2.1.2 Life Support Systems: Other proposal and projects

Another technology that has been proposed as a form of life support system is the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) which is used like Life Support System (LSS) or Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (CEBAS). Into a CELLS with the use of aquatic animals and plants and the development of a system that adds a microbial filter to hand out waste difficult waste products. The laboratory version tests of CEBAS technology is 150L has self-maintained in a closed system for 13 months and some smaller versions have tested in space-shuttle with microgravity. The basic problem has not  been tested  in 100% closure rate environment. A LSS with higher plants has greater capability to auto- repair and finally has been ascertained that a hybrid system with the use of chemical and physical subsystems would be more effective during the sort term (Bartsev et al., 1996, 2000, 2003; Gitelson et al., 2003).

An effect that has been established into the ISS and MIR is that a biological life support system can give a psychological exaltation for the crew. Of course similar with previous system that has been already described could be developed

As already written the basic project for space colonization has been developed for Mars and Moon. One of them is NASA’s Mars Design Reference Mission (MDRM).

Mars Design Reference Mission was put together Space Exploration Initiative on 1996 and after adapted and upgraded for changing missions and technologies. However, the baselines are in use still today. In this project the basic propulsion    is the chemical propulsion and it has been calculated that MDRM has consume requirements around 200 and 500 tones from Earth orbit with a spacecraft which has transported in parts and assembled from smaller spacecrafts from the ground. The basic critical system includes chemical life support systems and the power systems are a mix of solar collectors and new clear generators. All this systems are able to support 1000 days travel and a crew with six persons


Picture 3: Basic parts of ISS.source:sciencedirect

3.2 Other technological issues and a new kind of architecture: SPACE ARCHITECTURE

There ate some aspects that the space exploration and in extension the colonization may be not have basic hero a character like Luke Skywalker but a character like terminator. Many scientists support the idea that the first steps of all projects and missions must be implemented with robotics machines. Since today many robots has landed to many planets and have done some scientific jobs with successful results. Well – know paradigms are the Mars Sojourner and Mars Pathfinder. In a proposal about the colonization of Venus (Colonization of Venus, Geoffrey A. Landis NASA John Glenn Research Center, mailstop 302-1, 21000 Brook Park Road, Cleveland, OH 44135 216-433-2238 e-mail: in one phase of this project the exploration of the Venus surface will be done remotely by robots. Robots must have some specific advance technologies and adeptness like mechanical linkages which are able to operate at a temperature above 450 C. It is remarkable that this temperature is hot enough to melt the solder on a standard electronic circuit board. In   addition it is needed technologies which include virtual reality, advanced semiconductor materials, such as silicon carbide   In the future it will be created projects with advanced robotic mechanisms which will have the ability to prepare the coming of humans.

Among all new technologies and innovations a new scientific term and innovative architecture of buildings is rising: Space architecture. “Space architecture is the theory and practice of designing and building environments for humans in outer space. It combines engineering and aesthetics, and requires knowledge of space environments, spaceflight engineering, space system engineering, and the psychology of isolated and confined environments” (J. Osburg, C. Adams, B. Sherwood, A mission for space architecture. SAE 2003-01-2431, July, 2003.)

This new Kind of architecture has all the requirements of the common architecture but in addition must be answer to requirements and constraints of the “foreign” environment of every planet where it is having been planned to be constructed a space base or colony. Space architect must design and calculate the similarity with the earth environment, issues of life support systems and the safety valves. In addition must recon the possibilities that some functions and rule that doesn’t work normal or work with other parameters (for example pressure, gravity etc).  A good descriptive example is that a space architect but must know that the sound insulation doesn’t need in space environments because the sound doesn’t travel in vacuum. An other example is that when a building is designed must be calculated the problem of microgravity. In the future when the creation of space colonies become fact space architecture will be give many solutions.


Picture 4-5 Space settlements on Moon’s and Mars surfaces source:

3 Long term projects that are in progress and will be bring new technologies and innovations

In nowadays the only projects which running are the ISS programme and the JAXA Lunar exploration long term plan. Unfortunately the Mars exploration space programme has been suspended because the economic crisis.

3.1 JAXA Lunar Exploration long term plan

JAXA has developed an ambitious programme for the built of a lunar base. This program includes a set of technologies of the exploration of moon and the permanent support of a base. These  advance technologies are related about: Advanced technologies development Robotics, ISRU (in situ resource utilization) technology base.Acquiring advance technologies through the international space station (ISS) utilization and H-II transfer vehicle (HTV).International cooperation in high performance sensors and a solar energy supply system. Some of them are already in progress and some of them will be developed in the future. In the picture we can have an idea of the JAXA programme.


Picture 6: JAXA Lunar Exploration long term plan source:science direct

3.2 Farming in space.

It is a common sense that the colonization of space it is depended of the ability to supply all the metabolic needs like oxygen, water and food. So a conditional solution could to apply farming practices in space. This proposal has already applied such experiments in MIR and ISS. For example has been executed the plan growth and has been used e in the Photosynthesis Experiment and System Testing and Operation (PESTO). Of course the knowledge which has been gained after PESTO has been created new expectations and needs for more advanced future design with multiple redundant chambers to increase the yield and allow the necessary flexibility to deal with the anomalies, advance systems for the control of humidity etc.  The basic idea of this proposal is the create of space farms on space stations or planets surface and specified persons –space farmers- will be able to provide food in crews or in the future small populations in different environments than Earth’s. Farming in space will be operated in controlled environment chambers. These chambers will be created in different sizes and will provide programmed levels of light, air temperature, carbon dioxide and relative humidity. Other factors of the design of these farms could be the financial budget, the gravity etc. All the farms will be controlled and monitored by several systems like:

  • Moisture control systems: Is an “on demand” watering scheme, where moisture levels in a standard rooted zone which provide enough water. The soil moisture will be monitoring by pressure sensors or heat-pulse moisture sensors arrays.
  • Pressure sensors. The base use of Pressure sensors are use to check the root modules of Astroculture and Biomass production System flight hardware. In the future will be used to fabricate micro-tensiometers.
  • Oxygen sensors: In the Astroculture flight experiments there was found that was not measured the root zone oxygen. For this reason have been developed two kinds of sensors. The first kind is the electrochemical oxygen sensor and the basic architecture consists of a thin of electrolyte held among an anode and cathode. The electrolyte is shielded by a thin layer Teflon which protects the electrolyte from drying out and handling the rate of oxygen diffusion into the cell. The second oxygen sensor technology is the root oxygen bio-availability (ROB) sensor. ROB sensor is an electrochemical oxygen sensor and the base design trial is to have the same size, shape ,and oxygen consumption like a living root. All these unit ages make the ROB sensor to be sensitive in oxygen bioavailability.
  • Lighting systems: For the photosynthesis activation the need of a lighting system which uses the sun light is necessary. A project that is in progress  use plastic optic fibbers for the transportation  of  the light to the crops


Picture 7: An example architecture of environmental controlled life support system,source:sciencedirect

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Picture 8-9: Internal scheme of the plant growth racks source:


Picture 10: Future space farms

  1. Ethical Aspects

First of all the design of the mission’s projects and technological innovations must be created and have scopes for the common good and scientific value. The Outer Space Treaty [4] states in its Article II “Outer Space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use of occupation, or by any other means”.

As already written Nuclear power is the main potential energy source. Unfortunately the possibility of an accident isn’t too small. Outer Space Treaty refers exactly in Article IX: “States Parties to the Treaty shall pursue studies of Outer Space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, and conduct exploration of them so as to avoid their harmful contamination. . .” In this article it is referred that must be anticipated some rules of safety and planning systems and the avoidance of crew pollution.

  1. Protection from cosmic radiation

Protection from the cosmic radiation is very critical for the success for long time mission and accommodation to strange environments. Since these days has been developed many methods to protect the human body from cosmic radiation. Unfortunately all these methods have many problems for the reason of the high energy of the particles which are charged involved and the nuclear fragmentation appearing in shielding materials. The basic methods which have developed have two directions:

  • Passive fields: These methods are based from the computer codes which have the ability to “predict” the shield performance in space. Alternative passive method is the use of electrostatic fields, magnetic fields or plasma to deny the charged particles.
  • Active methods are in complete experiment level and include novel shielding materials, angular distribution of energetic solar particles and cooling systems etc.



This paper describe some current and future technologies and innovations that are developed and can support the implementation of   bases and in extension colonies in other planets in solar system  or the build of space stations. The basic plans and projects have been centralised to the Moon and Mars. All this projects   involves some solutions and answers about some problems of the strange environments like the life support systems for long time accommodation with minimum support from Earth, the cosmic radiation protection and the low gravity. All the technological researches of bases on other planets are leaded from the environmental situations. The basic today’s research’s try to have basic prototypes the ISS life support systems. Other more complicated that are in progress try to create a Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (CEBAS). Unfortunately these systems are in experimental level and haven’t been worked in 100% closed rate. Farming in space is an advance idea with many technologies that are included with many control and artificial support systems. The experiments that have be done up to now can be give a very useful knowledge for the improvement and update of the current controlled environmental system. Farming in space is the most certain and stronger solutions for the creation of permanent extraterrestrial human bases and in extension colonies .Space Architecture is a new branch of classical architecture and specified to create settlements and buildings to extraterrestrial environments. Robotic technology has already given many solutions and with future development can help for the extension of human in solar system. Many projects have been developed about the problem of cosmoc radiation. These projects have two directions: The creation of passive field’s protection and the protection of active methods which is in experimental level.  All the above technologies if they will be integrated will be give strong possibilities for the systematic space colonizations12

Picture 11: Future Base on Moon,source:sciencedirect


[1] A Journey to Inspire, Innovate, and Discover, Report of the President’s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy,  June 2004, Appendix C.


[3] JAXA Vision—JAXA 2025, Japan Aerospace Exploration

Agency, March 31, 2005.

[4] A/AC.105/572, United Nations Treaties and Principles on Outer

Space, Office for Outer Space Affairs United Nations Office at

Vienna, United Nations, 1994.

[5] Harry W. Jones a, M. H. ( 2009, October 19). Exploration life support technology challenges for the Crew Exploration Vehicle and future human missions. Retrieved February 28, 2010, from

[6] O. Monje 1, G. W. (2002, february 5). FARMING IN SPACE: ENVIRONMENTAL AND BIOPHYSICAL CONCERNS. Retrieved February 28, 2010, from

[7] Nikolay N. Sevastiyanov∗, Nikolay A. Bryukhanov (2007). Space stations: Evolution and newprograms. Retrieved March 15, 2010, from

[8] G. Madhavan Naira,∗, K.R. Sridhara Murthib, M.Y.S. Prasadc. (2008,May 21). Strategic, technological and ethical aspects of establishing colonies on Moon and Mars. Retrieved March 24, 2010, from

[9] H. Liu a, C.Y. Yu a, N.S. Manukovsky b, V.S. Kovalev b,*, Yu L. Gurevich b, J. Wang. (2008,May 16). A conceptual configuration of the lunar base bioregenerative life support system including soil-like substrate for growing plants. Retrieved March 24, 2010, from

[10] (2009, September 13). Retrieved March 22, 2010, from /locate/actaastro

[11] Y. Kitaya , H. Hirai, X. Wei, A.F.M.S. Islam, M. Yamamoto. (2007, September 7). Growth of sweetpotato cultured in the newly designed hydroponic system for space farming. Retrieved March 24, 2010, from

[12] K.L. Murphy a,*, V.Ye. Rygalov b, S.B. Johnson (2008, December 13). Minimal support technology and in situ resource utilization for risk management of planetary spaceflight missions. Retrieved March 24, 2010, from

[13] Claudio Finetto a, _, CesareLobascio b, AlessandroRapisarda. (23, October 2009). Concept of a Lunar FARM: Food and revitalization module. Retrieved March 24, 2010, from

[13] Leonid Bobea,∗, Nikoly Samsonova,1, Lev Gavrilova, Vladimir Novikova, Mihail Tomashpolskiya, Peter Andreychukb, Nikoly Protasovb,

Yury Synjakc, Vladimir Skuratovc  Regenerative water supply for an interplanetary space station:

The experience gained on the space stations “Salut”, “Mir”, ISS and development prospects. (2007, March 13). Retrieved March 24, 2010, from

[14] Theodore W. Hall. (2004, May 20). Retrieved from

[15]  Harry W. Jones a,*, Mark H. Kliss.(2009, October 14) Exploration life support technology challenges for the Crew Exploration Vehicle and future human missions. (2004, May 20). Retrieved from

This discussion was written on April of 2010

Can be the human mind digitized? Will be the computers acquire human mind and consciousness? A brief discussion

                    Many times the science fiction (movies, literature etc.) pass the reality and gives the directions and the directives about the human technology and evolution. There are many examples of movies and series which talk about the human technology and evolution. Some examples (which the author can remember and refer) are the movie “A.I”  which talks about an android which “feel motherly  love”   about  his owner , the remake of the series “Battle star   Galactica” where the machines  has been evolved so much where some types of them have no differences from the real humans. In addition in these two examples deals some concept about what is life, the meaning about the human creation and existence and the possibility where   the human will create human artificial life. Also deals some moral concepts about the capability of the man kind to take the role of God. The book “space Odyssey 2001&2010” describes a future which (unfortunately) has not come yet.  Of course we can’t forget the movies “Terminator” and “Matrix” where the machines take the advance of dominance from humans and try to destroy them. Last but not least there is the blade runner where the humans and androids seem to coexist but the android to be in a lower level of the future social life.                                                                                                                                               

                All of that describes technological civilizations which have extreme advance information systems where the units have artificial intelligence where many times overpass the human capabilities. The question of many people is if the technological evolution make the human kind to unite with it own technological achievements .The responsible answer is that none can answer in this question because none human in earth can’t predict the future. The only we can do is to make some conjectures calculating the facts that have created up to now. Up to know in the 20th century the technological evolution has taken the human from the plough to the space. On the other side in 1969 when the man went to moon they predict that in 1985 man will be in Mars (Arthur Clark).So because of this we can understand that the technological evolution does not increased linearly.                                                                                                                                                                    

               Off course the evolution in the computer science achieve the highest rate of development between the other kinds of sciences. There many reasons for this development. First of all some times it does not needed computer or some device support. The search and development of an optimum algorithm of something in the first steps need pencil, paper and a strong brain. In addition in the majority of researches the costs are lower in relation of the researches about the physics or the space exploration. On the other side all the researches needs the support of information systems. Because of these and other reasons some people say the computer science as the science of poor people.                                                                            

              In the hour which has written these paragraphs has been announced that a computer (in fact a supercomputer) has passed the Turing test (source business insider) which mean that has been appeared a computer which has true A.I capabilities. Past years developed computers which can play and sometimes win high level chess players. These facts saw as that the there is a notable progress in the sector of A.I. On the other side there is huge space from the development of A.I systems and transportation of the human mind to computers or other human’s bodies which have created with other non natural methods.                              

              The time when all this (crazy ??)   discoveries come  are depended  by many factors which are related about the global finance situation, the competitive race of corporation the development of the education and some other  politics factors. On the other side someone can ask why  need  all of this advance information technology. The answer seems to be difficult. The life of people globally seems to be most difficult and in fact seems to be implemented the story of movie “Metropolis (1927)” where the majority of people leave and work in a nervous manner of life. Of course there is the (true) opinion that advance information systems support the other science to find better solutions. In authors’ opinion both sides and opinions are right. Also, an other parameter is that when comes this time many operational and moral problems will comes not theoretical but practical. Is it moral to “copy” the human mind? Is it moral to be immortal through computerized method? One first problem was created when cloned the ships. The first question which created was if it is moral to clone humans. Similar problems will be created when the technology and the corresponding sciences (computer science, medical science etc) will develop more.                                                                                                                                                        

               Based the previous lines it easy understandable that this advance technologies when come will be difficult to handle and manipulate the pros and cons. There is the acceptance that the human race the last to centuries has huge progress in t he technological civilization but there is the same intellectual progress. This civilization already can’t manipulate effectively for the good of human kind. Technology is tool and a tool you can use it for helpful purposes or for harmful. Unfortunately all the facts saw as that there is not an equilibrium where the advance technological achievements will used for manipulation for profits and concurrently for the common good                                                                                                        

              Closing and concludes we can say that the concept which is described in singularity (and other science fiction movies, books, documentaries etc) it is very possibly that will be done one day but none can be when will be done. There are many factors which can accelerate or slows this progress (see previous lines).The main question when achieved this progress is how the people manipulate and administrate this evolution. Since these days we can watch and read all the past and future movies and books   which are related (computer) science fiction  concepts.        

This articlw has been presented as essay in the framework of MOOC:Programming for Everybody (Python)   

The impact of programming on our world.DIscussion about if everyone need to learn programming and how might individual lives and society as a whole be changed if we found a way to include programming and technology at all levels of education.

                Generally, programming (by the author’s opinion) is one of the most desired job by the persons who likes the informatics but a small piece of them have a deeply knowledge. In other words programming has deep impact in the technology evolution but isn’t for everyone. In the follow lines will be analyzed why programming has deep impact in our technology civilization. In addition,- in the follow lines-  will be analyzed why programming is not for everyone and will done some suggestions about the teaching of programming at all levels of education.                                                                      

                First of all –operational- the computer is a machine that has the ability to execute simple commands. What is a simple command does not need at this time to define exactly. For example, adding two numbers is a simple command. So a program is a set of instructions that can be executed mechanically, without the requirement for the existence of a “ crisis” by the machine to execute .Languages, ​​generally have very strict syntax which is necessarily limiting the programmer just to is interpretable by a machine. Historically, the first programs where in fact in machine language (zero’s and one) and used to implement some algorithmic calculations. This is done in now days but now programmers –the persons who write programs- don’t need to write the programs in machine language but in fact write in language which “helps” humans and machines to “understand” each other. Through programming and the corresponding programming languages and environments is done the software development. Today although the programming environments become very friendly, the development of professional applications is a difficult job.                                                                                                                                                                        

                   In nowadays the majority of processes have been done computerized which means that back of these operations is running software which have done through programming languages. Through the lines above we can understand that programming is the first step to develop programs and construct software application. In simple direct words: “Without programming, no software and your mobile phone, your computer will not work”. So, programming is the cornerstone of the software development. There are many kinds of software. There is software which interacts with user and software which run independently in the machines.                                                                                                                                                                    

                   Today the technological civilization needs the software development more and more. The majority of the jobs have been computerized and everyday are developed thousand applications to support these jobs. In many well known technological magazines are referred that the jobs which are related with the software development are the most recherché and well paid. The future saw us that this trend will be not change. It must be referred –for the objectivity of the essay- that there is a effort to detour the programming environment with applications which do many programming works automatically (such as lightswitch, php maker etc) but can’t be considered complete. That’s mean that that the industry of informatics will be need people who know programming for long time. In addition beyond the commercial area there is the research and academic area where is needed continuous software development for the implementation of complex algorithms or the solution of difficult problem. Because of the need of this purpose of software development it is need a person who knows very good programming.                                                

              On the other side all these evolutions must be shared in common people and make them understand that all of these automatic applications do not these processes magically but there are a lot of processes which must accomplish. In this point we must start to talk about the role of education about the study, the teaching of programming and the technology evolution broader. The teaching of programming in all levels of the education is not something easy. In nowadays there are some findings which saw us that the teaching of programming is not in right way globally. First of it is common sense that students while have great interest about the internet , software applications and especially about computer games , finally don’t interest to acquire knowledge about programming .Also there are studies that show us that programming is, for most students, an unattractive activity. Students believe that programming as a difficult, tedious, boring, irrelevant and antisocial work (Kay, 2011) .A good example is the  Great Britain students which the number of them who  learning programming have fallen to third in the last five years , creating corresponding voltage and universities (Wilson & Moffat, 2010). In addition there is the research of the Forte & Guzdial (2004)  that have as  result that the ” traditional” approach of  teaching programming is disappoint  than to attract students. These refers saw as that is not  only must include programming in all the levels of education but must find a way to make the programming interesting to pupils firs and the students next.                                                                                                                

             Of course we don’t need to be all programmers so it is physical some like the programming and some other not. In the follow lines will be referred some authors thoughts and proposal about the integration of programming in the education process. First of all there is the acceptance that the programming in the real dimension is not easy and is not for all. That’s mean that in the education process must be two directions: The first direction is to understand the “fun” side of programming and learn them the principles of programming to the set of student and built step by step the skills through the educations years and the second direction which collect the student who has talent in programming and prepare them to be professionals. Of course all of   them are not easy jobs and must be done pedagogical researches in all educational levels.    

            To conclude and close programming is a very serious parameter for the development of the technological civilization evolution but because of the individual difficulties is not for all. Programming must be included in all the levels of education but not such as another course but with a particular pedagogical approach    



This is essay has been written in the framework of MOOC:Programming for Everybody (Python)

Is programming for all???

          Programming (by the author’s opinion) is one of the most desired job by the persons who likes the informatics but a small piece of them have a deeply knowledge. There are many factors which affect and disappoint the people to take care for these directions. In the follow lines the author from his private experience and his research from the internet will try to refer some reasons, why the people don’t learn programming and sometimes dislike it.

         First of it is common sense that students while have great interest about the internet , software and especially about computer games , finally don’t interest to acquire knowledge about programming . Also there are studies that show us that programming is, for most students, an unattractive activity. Students believe that programming as a difficult, tedious, boring, irrelevant and antisocial work (Kay, 2011). Also researches show us , the declining number of students learning programming in recent years .A good example is the Great Britain students which the number of them who learning programming have fallen to third in the last five years , creating corresponding voltage and universities (Wilson & Moffat, 2010).

         Also there is the research of the Forte & Guzdial (2004) that have as result that the ” traditional” approach of teaching programming is disappoint than to attract students. With this opinion agree the author of this article and also believes that the program of studies in all of the levels of education have serious problem. This problem will be analyzed in the follow lines.                                                                                                                                                                                        

        First of all in the high-schools programming seems to be studied such as something supplementary with mathematics. Off course mathematics is the “platform” of programming but in the case of these ages these kind of teach makes the programming unattractive and boring. Because of proof of these there are some researches that saw us that according to this traditional teaching approach , students are taught a general purpose language that does not meet their needs and ambitions and does not helps in understanding new concepts . In addition, the usual problems importing the programming uninteresting students, because they deal with the processing of numbers and symbols. Also some scientific reports refers that the programming languages ​​used include several commands along with editorial details required forming a large volume of information that must be mastered by students , often forcing them to concentrate more on the technical details of a programming language rather than using basic programming principles.                                                                                

         An other problem is the programming as concept. Programming in the learning process, after the “hello word” includes many difficult concepts where is needed specialties from the teacher to transfer the knowledge into the students mind. Off course in high schools the problem isn’t so big because the concepts are not so difficult. On the other side it seems that there is the start of the problem because student doesn’t take a good idea about programming and don’t know the fundamentals and don’t learn how to work to acquire new knowledge and techniques. Today they have created some easy programming environments which try to make the programming more attractive.

        The problem (by the author’s opinion) seems to be huger in the higher education. Many course programs –not only which are related with informatics- includes some programming languages. The serious problem is that in these courses the instructor does not explain deeply the fundamentals and doesn’t try to instruct the student how to work alone. In addition student in the programming works-projects try to find easy solutions to finish the job in small deadlines with specific goal to pass the course and not learn. Many times more explanatory instructor doesn’t go step by step but makes huge jumps.    

       Also some course programs (maybe) do not give the opportunity to the student to analyze the techniques in one specific programming environment. Apart the academic or professional training an other serious problem for learning programming is that the user many times can’t afford the problem of syntax and design error which make the to create disappointment. Many user cant adjustment many things about the “behavior” of the programming environment. A good example is author (me).Java is a powerful language but it works with to different programming environments (Eclipse and Netbeans).So user must choose an other language for program writing. The problem is which one must be choosing. So must be one direction from someone to give these guides. An other problem which people does not like programming is that today there is the trend that people don’t like to get tired their mind so try to use some applications which not need programming code for the development Last but not least it must be referred that programming many times does not need only strong work and knowledge but it is needed physical trend and talent by the person who want to makes higher level programming applications. These talent can’t be acquired by technical ways and manners and unfortunately there aren’t many people who own it.                                                                                                                                      

        To conclude this essay the main problems about the diffusion of programming in publics seem to be the a) educational system, b)the difficulty in adjustment into programming environments and c) the lack in talent in this area and the reluctance in strong work in this area. In the future the educational system must reconsider some things about programming and must be found some ways from the leaders of informatics to encourage people to find interesting the programming.

This is essay has been written in the framework of MOOC:Programming for Everybody (Python)

Περί διαθέσιμων ανταλλακτικών σε τμήματα ΙΤ

Συχνά δημιουργείται το ερώτημα σε εταιρίες πληροφορικής(και όχι μονο) –μικρές και μεγάλες- τι διαθέσιμα ανταλλακτικά χρειάζεται γενικά, ένα τμήμα ΙΤ μιας εταιρίας .Απαντώντας σε αυτό το ερώτημα, θα πρέπει να σκεφτούμε ότι γενικά, αυτό εξαρτάται από τον αριθμό των υπολογιστών και των servers καθώς και από την πολυπλοκότητα της δομής του πληροφοριακού συστήματος της επιχείρησης .Επίσης παράγοντας μπορεί είναι και τα συμβόλαια συντήρησης καθώς και οι εγγυήσεις που υπάρχουν. Πρακτικά λοιπόν ,για παράδειγμα σε μια επιχείρηση με 30 Η/Υ, 2 servers καλό είναι να υπάρχουν 2-3 motherboards (αν θεωρήσουμε ότι τα μηχανήματα είναι αγορασμένα από την ίδια εταιρία), 5- 6 μνήμες και 3-4 δίσκοι .Επίσης καλό είναι να υπάρχουν και μικροανταλλακτικά εκτυπωτών και δικτύων (rollers, καλώδια κλπ)